In this in-depth blog by Master Infotech on Quantum Computing, the process, the elements, and the work profile of quantum computers have been discussed. By way of this blog, Master Infotech endeavors to generate awareness about the various aspects of Information Technology and their applicability in our daily lives.
Quantum theory is an interesting subject loved by theorists all over the world. People simply love the subject and every exciting phenomenon attached to it. But before understanding quantum computing, one must have a fair idea of what quantum theory is. Quantum theory discusses the behavior of matters on the quantum level, such as atoms and sub-atoms. Quantum theory postulates that energy consists of discrete, individual units and does not flow in a wave structure. Moreover, the elementary particles – the discrete units referred to hereinabove, collectively, randomly, behave like waves.
Niels Bohr, a Nobel Prize-winning physicist, illustrated the theory of superposition and defined how a particle can exist in multiple states for computation. Let’s discuss quantum computing – the phenomenon of pursuing the study of quantum theory via computers. Exciting, right? This must be heavenly for all the nerds, haha.
Learn more about Quantum Computing, how it works, and its applications through this valuable post by Master Infotech. We provide result-driven web solutions to various business niches across the world. Our areas of expertise include web design and development, digital marketing, mobile app development, brand identity design, UI/UX design, and much more. We have helped hundreds of clients grow digitally.
Table Of Contents
- What is Quantum Computing?
- How Does Quantum Computing Work?
- Elements Of A Quantum Computer
- Examples of Quantum Computers
What is Quantum Computing?
It uses the laws of quantum mechanics and deals with problems that cannot be solved via our everyday, classical computers. Supercomputers have their own limits. And despite having thousands of GPU and CPU cores, which is way more than a classical computer, their function is essentially that of a classical computer. They are just more efficient at it.
For quantum physics, however, it is pertinent to calculate the behavior of individual atoms and the interaction of various electrons with each other. Therefore, the need for quantum computing arises.
How Does Quantum Computing Work?
Okay. This is going to be a drag. It’s very complicated, but every effort shall be made to simplify this as much as possible.
To understand how quantum computing works, one must understand the functioning of classical computers. Classical computers work on the BOOLEAN principle, where data is processed in an exclusive binary state. On the other hand, the quantum computer works in the XOR mode and the QO1 mode. By functioning in the QO1 mode, the quantum computer superimposes the value of ‘0’ into ‘0’ or ‘1’.
In other words, each particle in a quantum computer is given a charge, represented by either ‘0’ or ‘1’, and the nature of these particles is then analyzed using the quantum computer.
For example, if one is to consider the example of ‘protein,’ it is a long string of amino acids. When proteins fold into long, complex shapes, they become helpful as biological elements. A quantum computer can predict how a protein string will fold, while a classical computer or a supercomputer cannot.
The modus operandi of a supercomputer will use its processor to check the various permutations and combinations into which the protein string will fold. However, as the chain grows longer, the supercomputer loses efficiency. For example, theoretically, a chain of 100 amino acids would fold a trillion ways. It is not possible for a classical computer to figure all of these ways out.
On the other hand, a quantum computer will make a multi-dimensional place in its memory where it shall compute the combinations which require the least amount of energy to form. In this way, it can efficiently predict the folding patterns without having to check the various permutations and combinations in a laborious way.
Think of it like this – a classical computer is a hard worker. A quantum computer is an intelligent worker.
Elements Of A Quantum Computer
A quantum computer uses various elements to function as smartly and efficiently as it does. However, the first and foremost element herein is a qubit. A qubit is to quantum computing what a bit is to classical computers. It is referred to be in a quantum state, wherein its value can be a ‘1’ or a ‘0’ or a superposition of ‘1’ or ‘0’. It is always either of the two or the probability, depending on the qubit’s quantum state prior to the analysis. It includes the following elements which help it in running multi-dimensional quantum algorithms-
- Superfluids – quantum processors need extremely low temperatures to function. They need to be very cold; therefore, the superconductors are created via superfluids, which provide a temperature about a hundred degrees below absolute zero.
- Superconductors – When electrons move through the processors without resistance, they match up. Adjoined, they are called ‘Cooper pairs,’ which carry a charge across insulators. This process is known as quantum tunneling. The conductors which are strong enough to bypass insulators are known as superconductors.
- Josephine Junctions – when two superconductors are placed on either side of an insulator, they are collectively called a Josephine junction. At this junction, a microwave is fired at the qubits, where their behavior is manipulated. They are held together, changed, or read out as individual units.
- Superposition – a qubit holds a plethora of information depending on its possible configurations. Groups of qubits create computational spaces; therefore, when the quantum information is placed in a state of superposition, it can be represented in new ways.
- Entanglement – This phenomenon discusses the entanglement of two qubits, wherein a change in one qubit directly impacts the other. Therefore, using algorithms is used to solve complex problems.
Examples of Quantum Computers
There are various setups and models of quantum computers, including the quantum Turing Machine, the adiabatic quantum computation, and the quantum annealing. Several companies make quantum computers, such as Google, IBM, and others, make quantum computers. In fact, IBM leads the quantum computing industry with its hardware. It has a 127-qubit microprocessor by the name of IBM Eagle.
The difference between the performance of a quantum computer and a classical computer is HUGE. In a demonstration by the University of Science And Technology of China, they claimed that their quantum computer could do in 20 seconds what a classical, contemporary supercomputer would do in 600 million years. That is like 219150000000 days!
A quantum computer is so advanced that it can work on information that can take millions of years for a classical supercomputer to process in seconds. Imagine what quantum computers could do in a day.
Science has always been an exciting and intriguing subject and computers being developed to enhance scientific processes is not only good news and a sign of advancement in itself. The world is advancing at a rapidly fast rate. While supercomputers were the talk of the town a couple of years ago, they are old news, and quantum computers have taken their place.
Quantum computers are a milestone and the ladder that scientists will use to achieve other milestones.
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